How to control blood sugar at a safe threshold?

I am 56 years old, newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, and see information that this patient needs to maintain HbA1c test below 7%. Ask your doctor for instructions on how to maintain HbA1c? (Hoang Duyen, Kien Giang)


The HbA1c (hemoglobin glycated) test shows a person’s average blood sugar level over two to three months. Inclusion levels below 5.7% are normal, 5.7% to 6.4% are pre-diabetes, and 6.5% or more are diabetes.

HbA1c levels help people with diabetes have an appropriate treatment plan. The HbA1c index can help monitor whether the patient is well on diabetes treatment, whether the doctor prescribes the correct medication; Is the patient taking the correct medication prescribed by the doctor, following the diet prescribed by the doctor? From there, the doctor of Endocrinology – Diabetes Department develops a treatment plan to help the patient control blood sugar, maintain health and prevent complications.

The goal is to keep the patient’s blood sugar below 7% to stabilize and preferably at 6.5%. Accordingly, people with diabetes need to take the medicine exactly as prescribed by the doctor. The self-medication of drugs not prescribed by doctors or folk medicines, herbs… all affect health and the treatment process.

The patient will have blood drawn to perform the HbA1c test.  Photo: Freepik

The patient will have blood drawn to perform the HbA1c test. Photo: Freepik

In the daily diet, people with diabetes should not be excessively abstinent, which can easily lead to malnutrition, making it difficult to treat. The diet should be varied and fully balanced with groups of starch, protein, fat, fiber, vitamins and minerals to ensure energy for daily activities and control blood sugar.

Patients should limit starches (rice, vermicelli, pho…), foods containing simple sugars (cakes, candies, soft drinks, processed foods…). The foods should be fortified as sources of unsaturated fatty acids (tuna, mackerel, soybean oil, peanut oil…), green vegetables (vegetables, melons, broccoli…) and low-sweet fruits. (orange, acerola, plum, grapefruit…). Daily meals should be divided (5-6 meals per day) to avoid high blood sugar after each meal.

People with diabetes should have an HbA1c test every 3 months and at least twice a year to make sure their blood sugar is under control. If the patient follows a good diet, takes medication as prescribed by the doctor and has regular check-ups, the blood sugar will be stable. At that time, the real time HbA1c testing between sessions will be stretched but still guaranteed to be twice per year.

BS.CKI Vo Tran Nguyen Duy
Department of Endocrinology – Diabetes Tam Anh General Hospital in Ho Chi Minh City

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